There are certain signs that indicate people of innovation, such as.
1. They attribute themselves to something other than Islaam and the Sunnah, due to what they have introduced from innovations in speech, action and belief.
2. They cling fanatically to their opinions and do not turn to the truth, even if it is clearly conveyed to them.
3. They hate the scholars of Islaam and the Religion.
From their groups are:
1. Ar-Raafidah - They are the ones who go to extremes with regard to the Members of the Household (Aali Bait). They declare the companions that opposed them as being disbelievers or they accuse them of evil (fisq). They are divided into many sects, among which are the extremists, who claim that ‘Alee is god, and among which are other than them. Their innovation first appeared during the Khilaafah of ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib when ‘Abdullaah bin Saba’ said to him: “You are God.” Due to this, ‘Alee commanded that they be set on fire. However, their leader, ‘Abdullaah bin Saba’, escaped to another city.
They hold various views concerning the Attributes of Allaah, so among them are those who performtashbeeh, those who perform ta’teel and those who are in conformity (with the correct view of the attributes). They are called the Raafidah because they rejected (rafd) Zayd bin ‘Alee Ibnul-Husayn bin ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib, when they asked him about Abu Bakr and ‘Umar and so he said “rahimahullaah” for both of them.
So they rejected him and distanced themselves from him. And they named themselves Shee’ah because of their claim and notion that they are taking sides (tashayu’) with the Aali Bait and that they support them and that they are reclaiming their right to Imaamship.
2. Al-Jahmiyyah - They attribute themselves to Al-Jahm bin Safwaan who was killed by Saalim or Salim bin Ahwaz in the year 121H. Their views concerning the Attributes of Allaah are composed ofta’teel (denial) and nafee (negation). Concerning Al-Qadar, they hold the opinion that mankind is coerced to do deeds (al-jabr).
Their view concerning Eemaan is that of Irjaa, which means that they believe Eemaan is merely the confirmation of the heart, and that statements and actions are not part of Eemaan. So according to them, someone who commits a major sin is a believer with complete Eemaan (i.e. Eemaan does not increase or decrease). So they are the Mu’atazilah, Jabariyyah and Murji’ah all in one and they are divided into many sects.
3. Al-Khawaarij - They are the ones who set out to kill ‘Alee bin Abee Taalib (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) due to his rulership. Their methodology consists of freeing themselves from ‘Uthmaan (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) and ‘Alee (radyAllaahu ‘anhu), setting out against the Imaam if he opposes the Sunnah and declaring disbelief upon the one who commits a major sin. They believe that this type of person will remain in the Hellfire forever. They are divided into numerous groups.
4. Al-Qadariyyah - Their methodology consists of negating Al-Qadar from the actions of the servant and that his desire and ability are independent from the Desire and Ability of Allaah. The first to manifest this view openly was Mu’bad Al-Juhnee, in the last part of the era of the Sahaabah. He learned it from a Majoosee man from Al-Basrah.
They are divided into two groups, one that is extreme and one that is not extreme. The extremist group rejects the attributes of knowledge, desire, ability and creating from Allaah in favor of the actions of the servant. This type of people has now become extinct or close to it. Those that are not extreme believe that Allaah is knowledgeable of the actions of the servant. However, they reject its occurring by His desire, ability and creating. This is what their belief is founded upon.
5. Al-Murji’ah - They believe that actions are deferred from Eemaan (Al-Irjaa). Thus actions, according to them, are not part of it. Eemaan is simply the complying of the heart. Thus the sinner, according to them, is a believer with complete Eemaan, even if he does what he does from the disobedient acts or he abandons what he abandons from the obedient acts. And if we ruled that someone that abandoned one of the commandments of the Religion is a disbeliever, then that would be due to the absence of the complying in his heart not due to his abandonment of that deed. These are the views of the Jahmiyyah. And it, along in comparison with the views of the Khawaarij, are the two opposite extremities.
6. Al-Mu’atazilah - They are the followers of Waasil bin Ataa’, who withdrew (‘Itizaal) from the gathering of Al-Hasan Al-Basree. He determined that the sinner is in a level between two levels. Thus, he is neither a believer nor a disbeliever, yet he will reside eternally in the Hellfire. ‘Amr bin ‘Ubaid followed him in that and their views concerning the Attributes of Allaah are based on ta’teel, like the Jahmiyyah, and concerning Al-Qadar, like that of the Qadariyyah.
They reject the relation of the Qadaa and the Qadar of Allaah to the actions of the servant. In regards to the one who commits a major sin, they hold that he will remain in the Hellfire forever and that he is extracted from the fold of Eemaan into a level between the two levels of belief and disbelief. Thus they oppose the views of the Jahmiyyah in regards to these two principles.
7. Al-Karaamiyyah - They are the followers of Muhammad bin Karaam, who died in 225H. They incline towards tashbeeh and hold the belief of Irjaa. They are further divided into numerous groups.
8. As-Saalimah - They are the followers of a man who was called Ibn Saalim. Their views consist of tashbeeh.
These are the groups mentioned by the author. He then said “And those similar to them”, such as the Ash’ariyyah. They are the followers of Abul-Hasan ‘Alee bin Ismaa’eel Al-Ash’aree. At first, he inclined towards the views of the Mu’tazilah sect, until he reached forty years of age. Then he openly announced his repentance from that to the public and exposed the falsehood of the Mu’tazilah. So he took hold of the methodology of the Ahl-us-Sunnah, may Allaah have mercy on him.
As for those who attribute themselves to him, they remained upon a specific methodology, which is known as the Ash’ariyyah sect. They do not confirm any of Allaah’s attributes, except seven, which they believe are proven by intellect. And they distort the meaning of the rest of them. The seven (they affirm) are the ones mentioned in this verse:
“He is Living, Knowing, Able and has Speech
Desire, and likewise Hearing and Seeing”
They also commit other innovations with regard to the meaning of Speech, Al-Qadar and other than that.